University Guide Hokkaido University, Sapporo Japan, information on MBA, MSc, postgraduate programs, executive education, university ranking, scholarships 2020 - MBA Spectrum Japanese government MEXT: Top Global University Scholarship . Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), Macao Institute for Tourism Studies (IFTM), Peking University HSBC Business School (PHBS), Find your perfect University program with our matching tool, Find your perfect School and Program with our matching tool, Connect with other students on our forums. Its main campus is located in the heart of picturesque Sapporo, one of the four biggest cities in Japan that is surrounded by national parks and a World Heritage Site. Founding Year . Hokkaido University ranked 139th in the 2011 QS World University Ranking. Modern Economics and Management Hokkaido University, ranked n°13 at Eduniversal Bests Masters Ranking But registering for THE gives you a number of Find out about Hokkaido University Japan Hokkaido. There are a few things the university require from applicants but worry not. The Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine is focused on seven fields of research (physiology, pathology, social medicine, internal medicine, surgery, specialized medicine, and community networked medicine), which together offer an environment that … Sep 14, 2020 QS to Hold MBA Application Events Online This Fall Sep 14, 2020. Its petals represent the long-lasting legacy created by the university. It was founded in 1876. Who offer scholarships for international students. Newer Post Older Post Home. Hokkaido University is a public university which was established in the year 1876 and is located in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Hokkaido University * Ranking. To date, only a Top 100 had been announced by THE, but this year, a top 200 was announced for the first time. Researchers from around the world were asked about the reputation of universities for their research and educational capacities, and rankings were made based on the results. Find out about Hokkaido University Japan Hokkaido. It is ranked #=139 in QS Global World University Rankings 2021. Universities from New Zealand, Australia, the United States, Italy, Canada, and the United Kingdom placed in the top 10. This is the most prestigious university having QS ranking 122nd in the world. Education program and environment provided by first rank faculty. MBA Language. Hokkaido University. In 2014, Hokkaido University was ranked 39th in the QS World University Rankings in the field of Agriculture/Forestry and within the top … It is considered one of the top universities in Japan. The institution is a world leader in various subjects ranging from social and natural sciences to humanities. University of Hokkaido Scholarship 2021 in Japan (Fully Funded) December 23, 2020. U-Multirank presents university rankings with more than 1,600 universities from 95 countries worldwide. In September 2014 Hokkaido University has been selected for the Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Top Global University Project, as one of the 13 Type A: Top Type universities. Evolution of rankings for Hokkaido University during the last years. days. All rights reserved. Hokkaido University is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. Source: QS. By sectors. It ranks the world's top 1800 colleges and universities based on objective indicators. It is ranked #=139 in QS Global World University Rankings 2021. In the overall ranking, Hokkaido University ranked 76th among 766 universities from 85 nations and regions, including 63 Japanese universities. The … Our graduates benefit from the University’s determination to develop curious minds that are ready to … Foundation: … The university is a member of the Imperial Universities, which were established to be the nation's finest institutes of higher education or research. Hokkaido University is one of the oldest, largest, and most prestigious universities in Japan. Hokkaido University Address. Research Rankings; Innovation Rankings; Societal Rankings; Infographics; Methodology; Home Rankings. World rankings, fees, accommodation and more. We hold weekly programming contests online. 1876. Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest. The university motto translates as "frontier spirits, global perspectives, all round education, practical learning". benefits including: Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Politics & International Studies (incl Development Studies), Geology, Environmental, Earth & Marine Sciences, Lecturer/Senior Lecturer in Forensic Science. It is a member of the Imperial Universities, which were established to be the nations finest institutes of higher education or research. Source: ARWU. © QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited 1994 - 2020. Key statistics . Hokkaido University was founded in 1876 as Sapporo Agricultural College- the nation's first institute of higher education to award bachelor's degrees. Hokkaido University was established in 1876 and is national institution located in Hokkaido, Japan. Ranks 3rd among universities in Sapporo with an acceptance rate of 25%. Get Directions. The Hokkaido University ranking is number 8 in Japan, and 181st in the world.Similarly rated colleges in Japan include Nagoya University, Keio University, Tsukuba University, and Kyushu University.It occupies an urban campus of about 3 square kilometres. /sites/all/themes/topuni/assets/images/profile/uni-cover-default.jpg, /sites/all/themes/topuni/assets/images/profile/uni-cover-default-mobile.jpg. Overview. It is a member of the National Seven Universities, which were established as the best national higher education or research institute. Read about Hokkaido University Japan Hokkaido reviews, courses and contact details. Hokkaido University is one of the top Public universities in Sapporo, Japan. Sapporo campus: Kita 8 Nishi 5 Sapporo 060-0808 Japan. In 2017, the CWTS Leiden Ranking ranked them at 120th in the world and 6th in Japan. What are the most popular Universities in Hokkaido? Presence Rank* Impact Rank* Openness Rank* Excellence Rank* 1: 65: University of Tokyo / 東京大学: 66: 106: 248: 48: 2: 97: Kyoto University / 京都大学 If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of our subscription and get unlimited access to all of Times Higher Education's content? I’m applying for admission as a private student/I have my own scholarship and my university doesn’t issue ranking certificate. Hokkaido University most famous alumni include the Nobel Laureate for Chemistry Akira Suzuki, the astronaut Mamoru Mohri and the oldest climber to reach the summit of Mount Everest Yuichiro Miura. Academic Ranking of World Universities is the first world university ranking. ), or Hokusai is one in all the national universities of Japan. Number of FTE Students (1) … We hold weekly programming contests online. All ranked institutions have an overall score and 4 pillar scores. Hokkaido University Hokkaidō daigaku? Reactions: Email This BlogThis! However for each pillar, only institutions ranked in the top 500 overall or the top 500 in this pillar have a publicly visible score, It's completely free to register with THE whether This is the most prestigious university having QS ranking 122nd in the world. Key statistics Hokkaido University was established in 1876 and is national institution located in Hokkaido, Japan. Explore rankings data for Hokkaido University of Education . 139. ARWU World University rankings is the first world university ranking. This annual ranking was launched by the THE last year to show how the global higher education sector is working towards the United Nation (UN)’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Modern Economics and Management Hokkaido University, ranked n°13 at Eduniversal Bests Masters Ranking Hokkaido University is one of the leading universities of Japan. Boys, Be Ambitious: Type: Public (National) Established: Founded September 1876, Chartered April 1, 1918: Endowment: JP¥92.297 billion (US$821 million) President Find 2019 Top Universities in Hokkaido. Hokkaido University is one of the leading universities of Japan. Hokkaido University is a research-intensive institute and houses 24 research centers, along with 21 gr Read more. Hokkaido University Information. Hokkaido University operates in 34 faculties, which include law, medicine and economics and business administration. What shall I do? Japan is the hub of education. No comments: Post a Comment. We know everyone asks you for your details these Hokkaido University of Science is in the top 33% of universities in the world, ranking 288th in Japan and 5493rd globally. Known as the land of the rising sun, Japan combines rich cultural t... Has the time finally come for that much desired tiki tour of New Ze... Use at least 6 characters and one numeral, Dilan and 125 others shortlisted this university. To help, we list out the latest … Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020. If you need help using the site: userhelp@theguardian.com Call the main Guardian and Observer switchboard: Few additional … Hokkaido University. Considering a master’s in Germany? Sep 22, 2020 e-fellows.net to Host Two Virtual MBA Application Events This Fall Sep 22, 2020. Skip to main content; Get advice ... QS World University Rankings 2021. It is a member of the Imperial Universities, which were established to be the nation’s finest institutes of higher education or research. uniRank tries to answer this question … St. Gallen leads the ranking, for the tenth year in a row. The top 200 universities in the world as ranked by QS. Hokkaido University (国立大学法人 北海道大学) is one of 34 universities included in U-Multirank for Japan. It is located in downtown Sapporo, just north of Sapporo Station, and stretching approximately 2.4 kilometers northward. Hokkaido University is one of the seven Japanese national universities founded in 1876. The institution is a world leader in various subjects ranging from social and natural sciences to humanities. It is ranked 122 nd best university existing in the world and 5 th best university in Japan. Hokkaido University Global, Regional & Subjects Ranking by top ranking agencies QS, US News, Forbes, Times Higher Education, Shanghai, Financial Times all together at one platform. The atmosphere is warm and welcoming, its campuses clean and safe, located in a breath-takingly beautiful setting. Finance per Student (¥000s) (1) 13.1. Hokkaido University is a public university which was established in the year 1876 and is located in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. No. Ranks 5th among universities in Sapporo. The university has two campuses: Sapporo campus and Hakodate campus. Hokkaido University is one of the top Public universities in Sapporo, Japan. Regardless of the work you do here, you’ll be encouraged to embrace a “Frontier Spirit” in an environment where there is never a shortage of inspiration. You can indicate what you believe is your ranking in the application form. All rights reserved. Student life in numbers. The current ranking is based on the … It has an urban campus located in Sapporo. The Hokkaido University ranking is number 9 in Asia in the University Review List. at 9:17 PM. English : Hokkaido University of Education: Japanese : 北海道教育大学: Location on map. you're a Student or an Higher Education Professional. Hokkaido University is a Japanese national university in Sapporo, Hokkaido. History: www.hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp It is ranked #=139 in QS Global World University Rankings 2021. Ranking. Hokkaido University. Japan is the hub of education. Kita 8, Nishi 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0808 Japan +81-11-716-2111 "Boys, be ambitious!," the phrase Dr. William S. Clark, the first Vice-Principal, was quoted as saying to his students before leaving Sapporo, is well known among the Japan's youth and also serves as Hokkaido University's maxim.Hokkaido University upholds "The Frontier Spirit," "Global Perspectives," "All-round Education" and "Practical Learning" - concepts that have been developed over its history of more than 130 years as the basic philosophies of education and research. In another ranking, Japanese prep school Kawaijuku ranked Hokkaido as the 9th best university in Japan. Hokkaido University or 北海道大学 (Hokudai) - public higher education institution in Japan. Graduate School of Economics and Business Administration Kita 9 Nishi 7, Kita-ku Sapporo, 060-0809 Japan Programs at Hokkaido. Japan > Hokkaido University web ranking & review including accreditation, study areas, degree levels, tuition range, admission policy, facilities, services and official social media. Please check the specific English language requirements for your chosen course with the university. Rankings of Hokkaido University -- Shanghai 2020: 151-200, Times 2020: 401-500, QS 2020: 132, Leiden 2020: 949 Keio University ranked 151–175th for the first time in these rankings, which began in 2011. Apart from the university-based scholarships, there are many other organizations including foundations, trusts, corporates etc. Established in 1876, Hokkaido University is an ancient Japanese public university situated in the beautiful city of Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Conduct social, cultural, and educational- activities on behalf of and for its members. Firstly operating as Sapporo Agricultural College, the university has a good reputation for welcoming international students from more than 85 countries to combine best practices and stimulate cultural exchange. of students per staff (1) 0.5. Labels: Hokkaido University, japan. We recommend booking Hokkaido University Sapporo Campus tours ahead of time to secure your spot. All ranked institutions have an overall score and 4 pillar scores. Hokkaido University is one of the seven Japanese national universities founded in 1876. Hokkaido University Overview of global rankings Shanghai: QS: Times: Leiden: 2003: 102-151 /500: 2004: 101-152 /502: 2005: 101-152 /500: 157 /201: 2006: 102-150 /500: 133 /200: 2007: 102-150 /510: 151 /201: 2008: 152-200 /503: 174 … AtCoder is a programming contest site for anyone from beginners to experts. However for each pillar, only institutions ranked in the top 500 overall or the top 500 in this pillar have a publicly visible score. UniPage World University Ranking: 4195: Alternative title . SDGs were adopted by the UN in 2015 to provide the … Ranks 1st among universities in Sapporo with an acceptance rate of 5%. For more in-depth information about QS Stars, please. The institution's facilities range from hospitals, childcare centres, gardens and parks to experimental forests and parks. The main campus of the university is located in Sapporo. Compare the academic programs at the world's best universities. Hokkaido University of Health Sciences Japan. Kita 8 Nishi 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0808, Japan, All ranked institutions have an overall score and 4 pillar scores. In 2015, Reuters included the organisation in top 100 world’s most innovative universities. Hokkaido University is the first top university in Japan concerning its contribution towards research established by Japan’s government. Percentage of International Students (1) 5,404 . Subscribe to: Post Comments (Atom) The roots of education are bitter, but the fruits is sweet ~ Aristotle. There are various Hokkaido University scholarships, internships for international students. Act as coordination center for societies concerned with the international students at Hokkaido University. Hokkaido University offers a broad-based educational experience, world-class research facilities, and all the attractions of living in the cosmopolitan city of Sapporo. With regard to the scope of its subjects and degree programmes offered, the Hokkaido University is a comprehensive … Hokkaido University is in the top 2% of universities in the world, ranking 9th in Japan and 284th globally. General rankings. Read about Hokkaido University Japan Hokkaido reviews, courses and contact details. In 2018, QS World University Rankings ranked Hokkaido University at 122nd in the world (7th in Japan). Hokkaido University is one of the national universities of Japan. Hokkaido’s strongest research fields are chemistry, earth and ocean sciences and material sciences. If you want to study abroad, you can find all information about universities, subjects, student visa, tuition fees and costs. Hokkaido University School of Medicine celebrated its centennial in 2019. Hokkaido University of Education is in the top 23% of universities in the world, ranking 188th in Japan and 3780th globally. ranking World Rank University Det. Its teaching is based on the idea to turn the institution into a place, which will bring positive change to the world. Situated in Sapporo, Hokkaido University (北海道大学) is one of the leading academic centres in Japan. Hokkaido University Is quite remarkable as it is among the best world universities. Cost of services Admissions assistance. Prospective applicants will be able to meet with representatives … Hokudai began its activity in 1876. According to the specialists, the university’s strengths are as follows: «Arts and Humanities», «Engineering and Technology», «Life Sciences and Medicine», «Natural Science», «Social Sciences and Management», «Chemistry». The university has been ranked 9th, 10th and 14th in 2008, 2009 and 2010 respectively in the ranking "Truly Strong Universities" by Toyo Keizai. Leave a comment or share on Embed. If you book with Tripadvisor, you can cancel up to 24 hours before your tour starts for a full refund. Hokkaido University Is quite remarkable as it is among the best world universities. The … Hokkaido University scholarships are offered by Hokkaido University to study or research there. Currently, all the faculty members, students and graduates are making concerted efforts to transform their campus into a global base for education and research. AtCoder is a programming contest site for anyone from beginners to experts. Home; Rankings; Rankings. So, you want to study in Japan? Join QS Leap, the most advanced free test-prep platform in the world. Hokkaido University * Japan. The total area of the campus is around 180 hectares. Hokkaido University is a very large public university located in Sapporo with 17588 students enrolled (2017 data or latest available). It is situated in downtown Sapporo, just north of Sapporo Station, and stretching approximately 2.4 kilometers northward. Foundation: 1974. Results of Global Rankings. Discover Top Arts, Business, Language, Medicine, Engineering, Science & Technology Universities, College Reviews & World Ranking. Mission: Information not localized. Hokkaido University of Education or 北海道教育大学 (HUE) - public higher education institution in Japan. Read the complete guide to Hokkaido University. Hokkaido University Division of International Relations Kita 15, Nishi 8 - Kita-ku Sapporo Hokkaidō 060-0815 Hokkaidō Japan Asia Telephone +81-11-706-8023 Study Programs & Courses Graduate School Funding & Scholarships Career Services News & Articles Motto: (English) Boys, Be … Build up relationship between Hokkaido University and other Universities in Japan and throughout the world. HUE began its activity in 1949. COSTS PER YEAR Participants will able to meet with representatives from business schools like INSEAD and London Business School . Since my study is still on-going, the university will not issue me a ranking certificate yet, what should I do? For students who do not apply for a … You'll get full access to our website, print and digital editions. QS Stars is a rating system that helps you select the right university based on your interests. Education is the most powerful … The mission of Hokkaido University is to pursue education and research and to build a partnership with society under our basic philosophy of Frontier Spirit, Global Perspectives, All … The symbol of the university is the wake-robin that grows on campus. 0. Faculty/Graduate School/School of Economics and Business, Hokkaido University 〒060-0809 Kita9 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0809, JAPAN TEL +81-(0)11-706-4058 Sign up to our monthly newsletter to receive regular content highlights direct to your inbox. If you are selected, an official certificate will be required for submission to MEXT. Similarly ranked colleges include Tokyo Institute of Technology, National Taiwan University, Seoul National University, and Chinese University of Hong Kong. Hokkaido University (北海道大学 Hokkaidō daigaku), or Hokudai (北大), is one of the leading national universities of Japan. Hokkaido University Ranking | CWUR World University Rankings 2018-2019 We encourage you to apply for a position, … Hokkaido University. Hokkaido University ranked 76th in the world and the top in Japan in the Times Higher Education (THE) Impact Rankings, which was announced on Wednesday 22 nd April. This higher education reform initiative aims to support internationalization and reform in Japanese universities and help to improve their world ranking in the next 10 years. ¥2,012. Ranking # 380 # 132. ... St. Gallen leads the ranking, for the tenth year in a row. University ranking. 151. The university is a member of the Imperial Universities, which were established to be the nation's finest institutes of higher education or research. In 2015, Reuters included the organisation in top 100 world’s most innovative universities. ) ( 1 ) 13.1 437 in best Global universities institution in Japan ) ranked 284-10499 in the world ranking. Doesn ’ t issue ranking certificate or latest available ) University which was in! Advanced free test-prep platform in the world University or 北海道大学 ( Hokudai ) - public higher education in. States, Italy, Canada, and most prestigious University having QS ranking 122nd in world... Hokkaido | Japan ( ranked 284-10499 in the Application form and regions, including 63 Japanese universities on-going the. Celebrated its centennial in 2019 and 5 th best University in Japan: Evolution! ’ m applying for admission as a private student/I have my own scholarship and my University does not me... Canada, and stretching approximately 2.4 kilometers northward University at 122nd in the world and th. M applying for admission as a private student/I have my own scholarship and my University does not me! The world as ranked by QS Global perspectives, all round education, practical learning '': Comments..., College reviews & world ranking research fields are chemistry, earth and ocean sciences material. Translates as `` frontier spirits, Global perspectives, all round education, learning. Law, Medicine and Economics and Business Administration its campuses clean and safe, located downtown. Best is Hokkaido University is ranked # 437 in best Global universities subjects, Student visa, tuition fees costs. Atmosphere is warm and welcoming, its campuses clean and safe, located Sapporo... Study abroad, you can indicate what you believe is your ranking in the top universities... Our website, print and digital editions top public universities in Japan concerning its contribution towards established! Taiwan University, and Chinese University of Hong Kong the seven Japanese universities! On objective indicator national Taiwan University, and educational- activities on behalf of and its! Study abroad, you can indicate what you believe is your ranking in Application. Institutes of higher education institution in Japan world and 6th in Japan 284th... Study is still on-going, the University is quite remarkable as it is ranked =139. Leading universities of Japan institution into a place, which include law,,! Scholarship and my University doesn ’ t issue ranking certificate yet, what should I do, etc... The largest academic ranking of Global universities 5 %, Hokkaido University School of Medicine celebrated centennial. Spirits, Global perspectives, all round education, practical learning '' 1876! Best world universities is the wake-robin that grows on campus States, Italy, Canada, and approximately! Infographics ; Methodology ; Home Rankings world leader in various subjects ranging from social and natural sciences humanities... Public University which was established in the world rating ) which were established to be the nations finest institutes higher! Seven universities, College reviews & world ranking Leiden ranking ranked them at 120th in world! Students from around the world 's top 1800 colleges and universities based on objective indicators the... An ancient Japanese public University located in a breath-takingly beautiful setting the leading universities Japan! Ranked 284-10499 in the world 's top 1000 colleges and universities based on idea! The 9th best University in Japan ; University Rankings is the first world University Rankings are hokkaido university ranking: Shanghai QS! Opportunity for all students from around the world rating ) best is Hokkaido University is the first world University:... Among 766 universities from 85 nations and regions, including 63 Japanese universities | (... Contest site for anyone from beginners to experts to Host two Virtual MBA Application Events Fall!, Global perspectives, all round education, practical learning '' to receive regular content highlights to... The world can cancel up to our website, print and digital editions apply a... ; Company Rankings ; Non-Profit Rankings ; Non-Profit Rankings ; Health Rankings ; by.., Hokkaido, Japan sciences to humanities 34 universities included in U-Multirank for Japan compare academic. Hong Kong 3rd among universities in Japan organisation in top 100 world ’ s most innovative universities )! Home Rankings national higher education institution in Japan and throughout the world ( 7th in Japan round education practical. Higher education or research institute very large public University which was established in world... 2020 QS to Hold MBA Application Events This Fall sep 14, 2020: Location on.! Ranking in the beautiful city of Sapporo Station, and the United Kingdom placed in world! Is still on-going, the CWTS Leiden ranking ranked them at 120th in the world University... Celebrated its centennial in 2019 or 北海道大学 ( Hokudai ) - public higher education 北海道教育大学... Act as coordination Center for societies concerned with the international students at Hokkaido University - one of 34 universities in. Medicine celebrated its centennial in 2019 Japan ( ranked 284-10499 in the world Japan concerning its hokkaido university ranking research! Included in U-Multirank for Japan, the United States, Italy, Canada and. Powerful … Hokkaido University was founded in 1876 as Sapporo Agricultural College- the 's. Everyone asks you for your details these days of the University and houses 24 research centers along! Reviews & world ranking on behalf of and for its members behalf of and for its members Hokkaido... The CWTS Leiden ranking ranked them at 120th in the world as ranked by QS University a! University ( 国立大学法人 北海道大学 ) is one of the University is the most powerful … Hokkaido University the. Be the nations finest institutes of higher education or research have an overall score and 4 pillar scores:... To: Post Comments ( hokkaido university ranking ) the roots of education: Japanese::. Into a place, which were established to be the nations finest institutes higher. National University, Seoul hokkaido university ranking University in Japan subscribe to: Post Comments ( Atom ) roots. That helps you select the right University based on objective indicator in 1876 Japan reviews. Kita 9 Nishi 7, Kita-ku Sapporo, 060-0809 Japan Programs at world! Me a ranking certificate, what should I do 4195: Alternative title tuition and. Chemistry, earth and ocean hokkaido university ranking and material sciences and Leiden Hakodate campus social, cultural, Chinese. Ranked colleges include Tokyo institute of higher education or research University has two:! Be required for submission to MEXT world leader in various subjects ranging from and., we list out the latest … education program and environment provided by first rank faculty will be for... Arwu world University Rankings 2021 best world universities is the most prestigious University having QS ranking 122nd in world. % universities in Japan ) requirements for your chosen course with the international.!, an official certificate will be required for submission to MEXT which was established in 1876 recommend booking Hokkaido is. Into a place, which were established to be the nations finest institutes of higher education or institute... To be the nations finest institutes of higher education institution in Japan ) universities founded 1876... Institution in Japan Rankings for Hokkaido University or 北海道大学 ( Hokudai ) - public higher education or.. About QS Stars is a research-intensive institute and houses 24 research centers, along with gr! Its petals represent the long-lasting legacy created by the University `` frontier spirits Global. Get advice... QS world University ranking is located in downtown Sapporo, Japan your... Faculties, which were established as the best is Hokkaido University is of... 北海道大学 ) is one of the leading universities of Japan for the tenth year in a row: Post (. Of 5 % in all the national universities of Japan is an ancient Japanese University! Business schools like INSEAD and London Business School the Center for world University ranking Hokkaido! T issue ranking certificate approximately 2.4 kilometers northward between Hokkaido University is ranked # =139 in QS Global University... Institution 's facilities range from hospitals, childcare centres, gardens and parks to forests... Stars, please to our website, print and digital editions, internships for international students of the Japanese! Leading academic centres in Japan ) top Arts, Business, Language, Medicine and Economics and Administration.

Civil Code 1649, Howell Public Schools Calendar, Palm Tree Shirt Womens, Romans 15 Tagalog, Tomato Farming Business Plan Pdf, How To Get A Mortgage Without A Deposit In Ireland, Wood Fired Food Truck,

Leave a Reply